Part of the Cyclopean wall of Jerusalem on Nion (Lefkada/Ithaca)

Eumaeus (Εὔμαιος) was Odysseus's swineherd and friend.  Odysseus' father Laertes bought him as a slave.  He was brought up with Odysseus and his sister.  Eumaeus meets Odysseus upon his return to Ithaca after fighting in the Trojan War.  

The Odyssey. Page 307 (210). Translation Robert Fagles.

  • Eumaeus - "Come, old soldier, tell me the story of your troubles, tell me truly, too, I'd like to know it well. Who are you? where are you from? your city? your parents? What sought of vessel brought you here? Why did the sailors land you here in Ithaca? Who did they say they are? I hardly think you came this way on foot."

The sentence "I hardly think you came this way on foot" suggests that Ithaca was accessible by foot. 

A stone bridge (Brigid) connecting Lefkada (Ithaca) to the Acarnanian coast has been discovered confirming that Lefkada is in fact Ithaca. 

The sentence "I hardly think you came this way on foot" appears four times in The Odyssey, Translation Robert Fagles. Page 83, (200). Page 307 (210). Page 340 (60). Page 345 (250).

What made Ithaca/Jerusalem unique was a valuable commodity, natural salt.  Ithaca/Jerusalem had natural salt pans.  Salt was highly prized as a vital preservative in the ancient world.  The salt from Ithaca/Jerusalem was of such high quality it became a prized commodity traded throughout the region.  The ancient people of Ithaca/Jerusalem grew rich from this white gold. 

Lefkada (Ithaca) is the only island in the Ionian sea that has salt pans (Alikes).

The salt pans are located at the foot of Koulmos, i.e., Nion/Zion, Jerusalem, karyotes, Lefkada, i.e. Ithaca.

During the 15th and 17th centuries CE the Franks and Venetians were supplying large quantities of high-quality salt to their respective markets.  The Venetians were also supplying high-quality salt to the north of Italy and to central Europe. 

The etymology of the word Jerusalem comes from Jeru+salem.

  • Etymology 1. Jerusalem, From Late Latin Ierusalem, Hierusalem, from Latin Hierosolyma, from Ancient Greek Ἰερουσαλήμ (Ierousalḗm).
  • The etymology of the word Hierosolyma, Alternative forms:
  1. Hierosolymae (-arum, f) (New Latin)
  2. Hierusalem (Late Latin)
  3. Jerusalem (n, indecl.)
  • The etymology of the word Hierosolyma From the Ancient Greek Ἱεροσόλυμα (Hierosóluma), from the Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‎ (Yerushaláyim) (influenced by Ancient Greek ἱερός (hierós, “sacred, holy”)).
  • The etymology of the word salem used to for the word jeru+salem. Latin Noun salem
  • accusative singular of sāl.
  • The etymology of the word sal. Portuguese, From Old Portuguese sal, from Latin sāl, salem (“salt, wit”), from Proto-Indo-European *seh₂l- (“salt”).
  1. salt. Noun sal m (plural sais).
  2. salt (sodium chloride, a substance used as a condiment and preservative). Synonym: graça.
  • The etymology of graça, Portuguese, Noun, graça f (plural graças)
  • grace (divine assistance).

A very large ancient theater has been discovered in Lefkada, i.e., Ithaca.

The theater has a seating capacity of more than 15,000 and is unique to the Ionian islands.

Test sections were cut in the area in late 2015, specifically on the northeast slope of the hill (Koulmos/Nion/Jerusalem/karyotes =/Karya) which forms a downward amphitheatrical hollow, ending in a long, flat section.

Strangely enough, the existence of this very large ancient theater is also not mentioned by ancient sources. 

In the early 20th century, an excavation under the direction of German archaeologist E.Kruger lasting several days recorded signs of the ancient theater but the discovery was not made public.

My family who owns the land surrounding the ancient theatre and ancient cyclopean wall knew of their existence for many generations.

The ancient City of Jerusalem on Lefkada, i.e., ancient Ithaca is very old and very large with an estimated population of more than 50,000 inhabitants. 

ANAX KOPSIDAS is proposing to restore the real City of Jerusalem in present day Lefkada, which is ancient Ithaca. 

Map of Ancient Ithaca

A large and very ancient town was built on the Ionian island Ithaca by Druidic and Celtic priests, and the priestesses of Danu (Io).  They had migrated to Ithaca from islands in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland known as Ethica and Iona.  The ancient town they built on the island Ithaca (Lefkada) was called Jerusalem.  The priests and priestesses came forth from Tír na nÓg, i.e., Atlantis.  They are known as The Tuath(a) Dé Danann.  Tuatha Dé Danann or simply the Danaans constitute one of the collective names for the Hellenes.  Tuatha Dé Danann or Danaans were also known as the Achaeans, Argives, Panhellenes, Ithacans (Lefkadians), and Mycenaeans.  All of the aforementioned terms were used synonymously to denote a common non-Semitic civilizational identity.

Ethica is the most westerly island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland.  Coordinates   56.5°N 6.88°W. 

Iona is a small island also located in the Inner Hebrides, off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. Coordinates   56.33°N 6.42°W. 

Ithaca is an island located in the Ionian Sea and was connected to the Acarnanian coast by a stone bridge (Brigid) making the island accessible by foot.  Coordinates: 38°43′N 20°39′E. 

The Ionian Sea was named after the priestess Io who came from the island Iona (Io-na), the small island located in the Inner Hebrides. 

Today the Ethica that is located in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland is known as Tiree.  The Island Ithaca in the Ionian Sea is known as Lefkada.  The Island of Ithaca in the Ionian Sea derives its name from Ethica, the island located in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. 

Anna Komnene, 1 December 1083 – 1153) was a Byzantine princess, scholar, physician, hospital administrator, historian, and her uncle was George Palaiologos who fought against the Normans (Viking/Semites) in the Battle of Dyrrhachium, near present-day Durrës (Albania) in the ancient region of Illyria.  She was the daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and his wife, Irene Doukaina.  The Alexiad was an account of her father's reign. 

Anna Comnene refers to Jerusalem in her work "The Alexiad."

The Alexiad/Book VI. Chapter VI. Translation by Dawes.

  • As for Robert (for my tale must return to the point where it digressed and be kept within the bounds of historical narration) he did not rest even after this defeat. But as he had already sent one ship with his son to Cephalenia as he wished to take possession of the town on it, he brought his remaining ships, with the whole army, to anchor near Bonitza and himself sailed for Cephalenia in a galley with one bank of oars. And before he could join his son and the rest of his forces, whilst he was lingering near Ather (which is a promontory of Cephalenia) he was seized with a violent fever. As he could not bear the burning of the fever, he asked for cold water. His men dispersed in various directions to seek water when a native said to them, "You see the island there, Ithaca. On that a large town was built long ago called Jerusalem, and now it has fallen into ruins from age; in that town there was a spring whose water was always fit for drinking and very cold." Robert was overcome with fear on hearing this for by connecting Ather and the town of Jerusalem he understood that his death was imminent.

The ancient ruins known as Nirikos on Lefkada, i.e., Ithaca, is the ancient City of Jerusalem.   

The mountain/hill where ancient Jerusalem was built was known as Nion, and today it's known as Koulmos.  There is a village on the hill Nion which is called Karyotes (Karya). 

The spring whose water is always fit for drinking and very cold still runs to this very day on Koulmos, i.e., Nion.

The Odyssey. Page 110. Translation Robert Fagles.

  • Telemachus.:; "Nestor, son of Neleus Achaea's pride and joy --where are we from, you ask? I will tell you all. We hail from Ithaca, under the heights of Nion (Zion). (for the etymology of the word Nion see the Kopsdas page).

The letter (N) becomes the leter (Z) when flipped sideways. 

Nion becomes Zion.

The German archaeologist Wilhelm Dörpfeld, having performed excavations suggested that Lefkada was Homer's Ithaca.  Dorpfeld claimed that "Nirikos " was the part of the Acarnanian coast near the village of Plagia, which is opposite Lefkada, i.e., Ithaca.  He believed that the nearby island of Lefkada was Homer's Ithaca, whereas the island Same is the present-day Ithaca.

Part of the ancient Cyclopean wall on top of the hill Koulmos/Nion/Jerusalem is still in tact.  The Cyclopean masonry was built long before the Trojan war and the false Jerusalem in the Middle East.  These very large walls are unique to the Ionian islands and there is no mention of them by any ancient sources.

In Homer's Odyssey, there is a geographical description of Ithaca and Same:

  • "Now there is a rocky islet called Asteris, of no great size, in mid channel between Ithaca and Same, and there is a harbor on either side of it where a ship can lie, with an entrance on either side. Here then the Achaeans [the suitors] placed themselves in ambush [against Telemakhos]".

There should be at least one rocky island between Ithaca and Same. Same should be located South of Homer's Ithaca where Telemakhos would arrive from South-West Peloponnese. Based on the above information, Wilhelm Dörpfeld in his essay "Alt-Ithaka: Ein Beitrag zur Homer-Frage" proposed that Same was present-day Ithaca.  ​

​It appears that the name of the island Ithaca was intentionally switched in order to conceal the real position of the real Jerusalem.